An ecosystem-based management of the marine and coastal systems requires the identification of ecological indicators. These indicators are defined as "objective metrics for the pelagic [and benthic] ecosystem that can be applied serially, in operational mode, to detect changes in ecosystem characteristics" (Platt et al., 2009).
In EMIS, several biological and physical variables are used to derive indices characterising key processes in eutrophication. These indices are:
Monthly average values of these indices are available on EMIS for coastal waters (< 100m water depth)